Modeling and Simulation Course

Lecture notes by Stanislaw Raczynski: Slides and auxiliary material

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     This material may help you to prepare a complete course on modeling and simulation (M&S). This is a basic course, starting with the very elemental M&S concepts, and terminating with some optional advanced topics. We do not pretend to include all M&S topics here, but it seems that after this course, the student will have a good introductory orientation to continue his/her education and to use M&S in a professional way.

     The slide set includes more than 150 slides. It is accompanied by an auxiliary material of about 40 pages. The auxiliary text contains comments to each of the slides and the course program. The course duration should be between 45 and 60 hours. See the course program.

     The software used in the exercises and examples is our suggestion only. You can use any other software you have. However, remember that this is a basic, general course on M&S, which cannot be based on only one simulation language or package. You should have a software that supports discrete event and queuing models, as well as continuous models based on ordinary differential equations, signal-flow graphs, bond graphs and systems dynamics. The software you use should be available for free (student or demo versions) or be of low cost. This is important, because the students should be able to use the software in their further training and projects they will do after terminating the course. 


     The software used in this course was mainly PSM++ package, because it supports continuous as well as discrete event simulation, including ODE models, signal-flow graphs, bond graphs, animation for queuing models and combined models. Other software include the free student versions of GPSS and Stella, among others. The main idea of this material is to help you in preparing your own course. The slides include several pages of references and suggested text. The auxiliary material that comes with this package is for your use and information (comments and explanations of the slides), rather than a text for the students.

    The main text we suggest is the Simulation Encyclopedia of Stanislaw Raczynski. See

    Big short time promotion: Both products (Sim course and the Encyclopedia for US$30).

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Consult also

and (resume of Stanislaw Raczynski)


Course programme:

Modeling and Simulation Course

1. Introduction

    1.1. Definition of computer simulation

    1.2. Importance of modeling and simulation in business and manufacturing system    management

    1.3. Modeling and simulation as complementary tasks

    1.4. Computer simulation as an interdisciplinary tool

    1.5. Examples of application in various fields of science, technology and life

2. General concepts of modeling

    2.1. Continuous and discrete models and simulation

    2.2. The model: components, descriptive variables and interaction rules

    2.3. The concept of model state

    2.4. Descriptive variables: input, state, output, model parameters, state transition and          output functions

    2.5. Experimental frames and simplified models

    2.6. Model validation, verification and credibility

    2.7. Classification of dynamic systems

3. Chronology of M&S methods and software development

4. Discrete simulation

    4.1. Probability, distributions and random numbers generation (including chi-square test)

    4.2. Simulation "Monte Carlo"

    4.3. Object- and agent-oriented simulation. Model time, event messages and event queue

    4.4. CSL

    4.5. GPSS

    4.6. PSM++

    4.7. The "Three phases" strategy in event simulation

    4.8. Object-oriented simulation - ideas of Simula67

5. Continuous simulation

    5.1. Analog machines

    5.2. Possible continuous model representations: ODE, Signal Flow, Bond Graphs

    5.3. Examples of continuous ODE models

       5.3.1. Mass in movement

       5.3.2. Car suspension

       5.3.3. Stirred tank

    5.4. Numerical methods for ODEs

    5.5. Direct coding of a continuous simulation program

    5.6. Exercise for ODE simulation : car suspension


    5.7. Signal Flow Graphs (SGF)

       5.7.1. Nodes and links, SFG and block diagrams

       5.7.2. Examples: an automatic control system, an electric circuit

       5.7.3. Eliminating equations and coding from the simulation task

       5.7.4. Signal flow module of PSM++ - link types

       5.7.5. Signal flow module of PSM++ - an exercise


    5.8. Bond graphs

        5.8.1. The bond and the related variables

        5.8.2. Node and bond types, causality

        5.8.3. Examples: application to mechanical systems

        5.8.4. Exercises


6. System Dynamics (SD)

    6.1. System thinking. Definition of SD by Jay Forrester

    6.2. Basic concepts

    6.3. SD software tools

    6.4. Examples: business dynamics, ecology

7. Advanced topics

    7.1. Distributed simulation

    7.2. High Level Architecture

    7.3. Discrete Event Specification Formalism (DEVS)

    7.4. Other possible tools: Differential Inclusions (DIs) in modeling and simulation

        7.4.1. Advanced case study: Stock market simulation using DIs  

7. References

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